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Flushing Remonstrance   Flushing Remonstrance Bibliography
Updated November 16, 2007!




In 1656, Governor Peter Stuyvesant passed an Ordinance declaring that any person entertaining a Quaker Meeting House for a single night was to be fined, and that vessels bringing any Quaker into the province would be confiscated. Sentiment grew in Flushing to oppose this infringement upon the right to enjoy liberty of conscience as provided in the town charter. It was decided to send a remonstrance to the governor in protest of his action.

John Bowne was not a signer of the Remonstrance, but he must have surely agreed with his fellow Flushing residents who did. In 1662, he was arrested for outrightly defying the governor's ban by allowing Quakers to worship in his home.

The original Remonstrance manuscript is kept in the Manuscripts and History Section of the New York State Library in Albany, where it was damaged in a 1911 fire in the Capitol archives. A 21st century rendering of the Remonstrance follows.

REMONSTRANCE

Of the Inhabitants of the Town of Flushing
To Governor Stuyvesant
December 27, 1657

Right Honorable,


You have been pleased to send up unto us a certain prohibition or command that we should not receive or entertain any of those people called Quakers because they are supposed to be by some, seducers of the people. For our part we cannot condemn them in this case, neither can we stretch out our hands against them, to punish, banish or persucute them, for out of Christ god is a consuming fire, and it is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.

We desire therefore in this case not to judge least we be judged, neither to condemn least we be condemned, but rather let every man stand and fall to his own Master. Wee are bounde by the Law to doe good unto all men, especially to those of the household of faith. And though for the present we seem to be unsensible of the law and the Law giver, yet when death and the Law assault us, if wee have our advocate to seeke, who shall plead for us in this case of conscience betwixt god and our own souls; the power of this world can neither attack us, neither excuse us, for if God justifye who can condemn and if God condemn there is none can justifye.

And for those jealousies and suspicions which some have of them, that they are destructive unto Magistracy and Ministerye, that can not bee, for the magistarte hath the sword in his hand and the minister hath the sword in his hand, as witnesse those two great examples which all magistrates and ministers are to follow, Moses and Christ, whom god raised up maintained and defended against all the enemies both of flesh and spirit; and therefore that which is of God will stand, and that which is of man will come to nothing. And as the Lord hath taught Moses or the civil power to give an outward liberty in the state by the law written in his heart designed for the good of all, and can truly judge who is good, who is civil, who is true and who is false, and can pass definitive sentence of life or death against that man which rises up against the fundamental law of the States General; soe he hath made his ministers a savor of life unto life, and a savor of death unto death.

The law of love, peace and liberty in the states extending to Jews, Turks, and Egyptians, as they are considered the sonnes of Adam, which is the glory of the outward state of Holland, soe love, peace and liberty, extending to all in Christ Jesus, condemns hatred, war and bondage. And because our Saviour saith it is impossible but that offenses will come, but woe unto him by whom they cometh, our desire is not to offend one of his little ones, in whatsoever form, name or title hee appears in, whether Presbyterian, Independent, Baptist or Quaker, but shall be glad to see anything of God in any of them, desiring to doe unto all men as wee desire all men should doe unto us, which is the true law both of Church and State; for our Saviour saith this is the law and the prophets.

Therefore if any of these said persons come in love unto us, we cannot in conscience lay violent hands upon them, but give them free egresse and regresse unto our Town, and houses, as God shall persuade our consciences. And in this we are true subjects both of Church and State, for we are bounde by the law of God and man to doe good unto all men and evil to noe man. And this is according to the patent and charter of our Towne, given unto us in the name of the States General, which we are not willing to infringe, and violate, but shall houlde to our patent anmd shall remaine, your humble servants, the inhabitants of Vlishing.

Written this 27th day of December, in the year 1657, by mee

EDWARD HART, Clericus

Tobias Feake
Nathaniel Tue
The Mark of William Noble
Nicholas Blackford
The Mark of Micah Tue
William Thorne, seignor
The Mark of William Thorne, junior
The Mark of Philipp Ud
Edward Tarne
Robert Field, senior
John Store
Robert Field, junior
Nathaniel Hefferd
Nick Colas Parsell
Benjamin Hubbard
Michael Milner
The Mark of Henry Townsend
William Pigion
George Wright
The Mark of John Foard
George Clere
Henry Semtell
Elias Doughtie
Edward Hart
Antonie Feild
John Mastine
Richard Stockton
John Townesend
Edward Griffine
Edward Farrington